Emotional Quotient-360

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Note: This test review was published by BPS on 8th December 2006

Description of the Test

Reuven Bar-On has developed a family of questionnaires designed to measure Emotional Intelligence (EI), which is defined as “an array of non-cognitive capabilities, competencies and skills that influence one’s ability to succeed in coping with environmental demands and pressures”. To complement the measurement of EI by self-report inventories, Reuven Bar-On and Richard Handley have developed the “EQ-360”. This is a multi-rater measure of emotional intelligence designed for a wide range of settings. It is used in conjunction with the BarOn EQ-i to provide a 360-degree overview of an individual’s present emotional and social functioning. Both inventories share the same factor structure and the same rationale for their development. The areas of application for the BarOn EQ-360 include leadership development, succession planning, prediction of employee success and competency model development. There is one form only, an 88-item measure, which takes 20-30 minutes to complete, and respondents are asked to focus on rating the person they have been asked to assess within the context in which feedback is requested e.g. how they are at work. Respondents rate each item on a five-point Likert-type scale with options ranging from 1 ‘Very Seldom or Not True’ to 5 ‘Very Often True or True’. These items render scores for 15 different subscales, which are themselves combined to form five composite scales and one overall EI score. This is the same as for the BarOn EQ-i. The five composite scales are: Intrapersonal, lnterpersonal, Adaptability, Stress Management and General Mood. Intrapersonal EQ (RAeq) assesses the inner self and is derived from five subscales: Self-Regard, Emotional Self-Awareness, Assertiveness, Independence and Self-Actualisation. Interpersonal EQ (EReq) looks at interpersonal skills and functioning and is derived from three subscales: Empathy, Social Responsibility and Interpersonal Relationship. Adaptability EQ (ADeq) reveals how successfully an individual can deal with environmental demands and problematic situations and is derived from three subscales: Reality Testing, Flexibility and Problem Solving. Stress Management (SMeq) looks at how an individual deals with stress and their ability to retain control and is derived from two subscales: Stress Tolerance and Impulse Control. General Mood (GMeq) looks at general positivity and cheerfulness and is derived from two factors: Happiness and Optimism. One important aspect of the administration of this instrument is ensuring that raters have been assigned to their correct rater groups. There are six rater groups: managers, peers, direct reports, clients, family and friends, and ‘mixed/other’. Raters’ responses are grouped and averaged in terms of their rater group. The mean differences between rater groups are quite small. It is important to note, that in contrast with most other 360 systems, the 360 per se only covers the observer perspective and not the self perspective. The EQ-i is a different (but closely related) questionnaire with a different and larger set of statements and different normative data. The person being rated must have completed a BarOn EQ-i and have EQ-i scores as the EQ-360 scores are interpreted in relation to the EQ-i scores. Consensus between these scores provide confirmation that self-perceptions concerning person EI strengths and weaknesses are accurate. Discrepancies suggest that the person being rated may have overestimated or underestimated their EI competencies, or may have poor self insight. Differences between raters may indicate that the person being rated behaves, performs or is perceived to behave differently when interacting with these individuals or may suggest major differences in familiarity with the ratee. Raw scores are converted into standard scores based on a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15 (similar to IQ scores). Across the family of BarOn assessment tools, high EQ scores are taken to denote “emotionally intelligent” people, while lower scores indicate a need to “improve emotional skills in specific areas”. According to the EQ-360 Manual, the EQ-360 provides data from those who are able to “observe the individual’s daily behaviour from all possible angles…. When these ratings are combined with the individual’s own BarOn EQ-i scores, the results are able to effectively and accurately identify both personal strengths as well as the need for improvement.

Authors: Reuven Bar-On & Richard Handley

Test Publisher: MHS (UK)